Causality (also referred to as 'causation', or 'cause and effect') is the agency or efficacy that connects one process (the cause) with another (the effect), where the first is understood to be partly responsible for the second. In general, a process has many causes, which are said to be causal factors for it, and all lie in its past. An effect can in turn be a cause of many other effects, which all lie in its future.
Causality is an abstraction that indicates how the world progresses, so basic a concept that it is more apt as an explanation of other concepts of progression than as something to be explained by others more basic. The concept is like those of agency and efficacy. For this reason, a leap of intuition may be needed to grasp it. Accordingly, causality is built into the conceptual structure of ordinary language.
In Aristotelian philosophy, the word 'cause' is also used to mean 'explanation' or 'answer to a why question', including Aristotle's material, formal, efficient, and final "causes"; then the "cause" is the explanans for the explanandum. In this case, failure to recognize that different kinds of "cause" are being considered can lead to futile debate. Of Aristotle's four explanatory modes, the one nearest to the concerns of the present article is the "efficient" one.
Play is essential for children’s healthy growth and development ... As with all research, when it refers to an association or a correlation between two things, it doesn’t imply a causal relationship.For example, one of the individual factors associated with playing outdoors is the weight of the child ... .
In addition, the research team succeeded in proving a causal relationship ... The fact that there is indeed a causal relationship between the change in the microbiome and temperature adaptation has now been proven ... Professor Fraune says that they "were able to establish a causal relationship between microbiome composition and environmental adaptations.
'This is a correlational study, so one needs to be cautious about drawing causal conclusions, for example, stating that narcissism is the cause of diminished sexual and relationship satisfaction, or of more problematic sexual response during partnered sex,' Rowland said ... The study has been published in the journal Sexual and Relationship Therapy.
Health outsourcing has been found to be linked to higher mortality rates, as privatisation of healthcare worsens healthcare services ...Benjamin Goodair said ... While the analysis is not able to identify a causal relationship, the results suggest that the privatisation of healthcare is corresponding with worse quality care ... The report states ... ....
But the extraction of these raw materials is only one aspect of the supply chain ... Although the case was dismissed after a drawn-out legal battle in November 2021 – on the basis that there was not a strong enough causal relationship between the firms’ conduct and the miners’ injuries – the victims are currently appealing the decision ... Melson adds.
After a protracted legal battle, US district court judge Carl J Nichols dismissed the legal case on the basis there was not a strong enough causal relationship between the firms’ conduct and the miners’ injuries ... . disqualification is not required solely because a party in a matter before the judge is a corporation . ... He added ... .
The researchers explained why their evidence is strongly indicative of a causal relationship between the vaccines and heart inflammation ... with the second dose and the mRNA-1273 [Moderna] vaccine, which contains a larger amount of mRNA, suggest a dose response relationship.”.
Investment into HSE-run inpatient mental health services is required to ensure that people, regardless of their financial means, have access to a similar standard of mental health care, according to a report ... Premises ... Care plans ... However, it added that based on the data available, "it is not possible to determine a direct causal relationship" ... .
ACTIVISTS. Fox NewsDigital examined gun ownership in the U.S ...Rep ... "The short answer is that there is absolutely no statistical evidence to that effect showing some causal relationship" between the increase in gun purchases and increase in violent crimes, the Heritage Foundation's Amy Swearer told Fox News Digital in April ... ....
Both home values and rental costs have risen dramatically across the U.S. over the past year, but they haven’t increased uniformly ...It’s no secret that the U.S. housing market has been on fire for the past couple of years ... Insights ... The findings of this study are not meant to imply the direction nor necessarily the existence of a causal relationship ... 10.
NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Jun 30, 2022--. Pfizer Inc. (NYSE. PFE) today announced the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S ... 2 ... 2 ... U.S ... Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Their study shows how their model can be used to better understand the relationships between media coverage, mass shootings, and firearm ownership, uncovering causal associations that are masked when the proxies are used individually.
... to causality analysis ... Regardless of whether I was a doctor in the past or later a pharmacovigilance specialist in a pharmaceutical company, what I am most concerned about is whether there is a causal relationship between these 800 plus cases of leukemia and the vaccination.
For a look behind the scenes of our data journalism, sign up to Off the Charts, our weekly newsletter \nIT IS WELL known that markets hate uncertainty ... But as Citi analysts wrote in a research note, “coincident rather than causal relationships are relied on even if they have no consistency whatsoever.” ■ .